porno gros bite lady orlane

Intanto Erminia infra Pombrose piante D'antica selva dal cavallo 6 scorta ; N6 piu governa il fren la man tremante, E mezza quasi par tra viva e morta. Per tante strade si raggira e tante II corridor che 'n sua balia la porta, Ch'alfin dagli occhi altrui pur si dilegua, Ed 6 soverchio ormai ch'altri la segua. Ma nelPora che'l sol dal carro adorno Scioglie i corsieri e'n grembo al mar s'annida, Giunse del bel Giordano alle chiare acque, E scese in riva al fiume, e qui si giacque.

Apre i languidi lumi, e guarda quelli Alberghi solitarj de'pastori, E parle voce uscir tra l'acqna, e i rami Che a'sospiri ed al pianto la richiami. Ma son, mentr'ella piange, i suoi lamenti Rotti da un rozzo suon ch'a lei ne viene, Che serabra ed 6 di pastorali accenti Misto, e di boscherecce inculte avene.

Vedendo quivi comparir repente L'insolite armi, sbigottir costoro ; Ma li saluta Erminia, e dolcemente Gli affida, e gli occhi scopre e i bei crin d'oro. Seguite, dice, avventurosa gente Al ciel diletta, il bel vostro lavoro ; Ch6 non portano gid guerra quest'armi AH'opre vostre, ai vostri dolci carmi. Piglio, ei rispose, d'ogni oltraggio e scorno La mia famiglia e la mia greggia illese Digitized by VjOOQlC qui fur ; ne strepito di Marte ai turbd questa remota parte.

Ij miei questi ch'addito e mostro i della mandra, e non ho servi. Come soglion talor due can mordenti per invidia o per altro odio mossi, Avvicinarsi digrignando i denti, Con occhi biechi e piii che bracia rossi Indi a'morsi venir di rabbia ardenti, Con aspri ringhi e rabbuffati dossi ; Cosi alle spade dai gridi e dall'onte Venne il Circasso e quel di Chiaramont A piedi 6 Tun, l'altro a cavallo: Quando crede cacciarlo, egli s'arresta E se tener lo vuole, o corre, o trotta: Poi sotto il petto si caccia la testa, Giuoca di schiene e mena calci in frottj Vedendo il Saracin ch'a domar questa Bestia superba era mal tempo allotta, Ferma le man sul primo arcione, e s'al: E dal sinistro fianco in piede sbalza.

Vulcano era piii tardo ca aff umicata, dove 3ude i folgori di Giove. Ido con la spada a dosso tutto s'abbandona: Biconosce i proprj errori, e invita se stes, ad O8coltar la voce di Dio. Io son si stanco sotto '1 fascio antico Delle mie colpe, e dell'usanza ria ; Ch'i' temo forte di mancar tra via, E di cader in man del mio nemico. Ben venne a dilivrarmi nn grande amice Per 8omma ed ineffabil cortesia ; Poi void fuor della veduta mia, Si, ch'a mirarlo indarno m'affatico. Ma la sua voce ancor quaggiii rimbombs voi, che travagliate, ecco il cammin Venite a me, se'l passo altri non serra.

Qnal grazia, qual'amore, o qnal destino Mi dard penne in guisa di colomba, Ch'i'mi riposi, e levimi da terra? Le virtu, le bellezze, e le grazie di Law non hanno esempio, che net Gielo.

Ma non si, che paura non mi desse La vista, che m'apparve, d'un leone Questi parea, che contra me venesse Con la testa alta, e con rabbiosa fai Si che parea che 1'aer ne temesse. Ed una lupa, che di tutte brame Sembiava carca nella sua magrezza, E molte genti fe'gid viver grame. A te convien tenere altro viaggio, Rispose, poi che lagrimar mi vide, Se vuoi campar d'esto luogo selvaggio: E ha natura si malvagia e ria, Che mai non empie la bromosa voglia, E dopo il pasto ha piii fame che pria.

Molti son gli airimali, a cui s'ammoglia, E piii saranna ancora, infin che il Velfc Verra, che la fara morir di doglia. Questi non cibera terra n6 peltro, Ma sapienza, e amore, e virtute ; E sua nazion sara tra Feltro e Feltro. Questi la caccera per ogni villa, Fin che l'avra rimessa nelFInferno, La onde invidia prima dipartilla. Ond'io per lo tuo me'penso e discerno, Che tu mi segui, ed io sard tua guida, E trarrotti di qui per luogo eterno, Ove udirai le disperate strida, Vedrai gli antichi spiriti dolenti, Che la seconda morte ciascun grida: E vederai color, che son contenti Nel f uoco, perchd speran di venire, Quando che sia, alle beate genti: Poeta, io ti richieggio [uello Iddio, che tu non conoscesti, S ch'io fugga questo male e peggio, mi meni Id dov'or dicesti, L'io vegga la porta di San Pietro, [or, che tu fai cotanto mesti.

Qui si convien lasciare ogni sospetto; Ogni viltd convien che qui sia morta Noi sem venuti al luogo ov'io t'ho dett Che tu vedrai le genti dolorose, Ch'hanno perduto il ben delF intelle E poiche la sua mano alia mia pose, Con lieto volto, ond'io mi confortai, Mi mise dentro alle segrete cose. Quivi sospiri, pianti, e alti guai Risonavan per l'aer senza stelle, Per ch'io al cominciar ne lagrimai. Diverse lingue, orribili favelle, Parole di dolore, accenti d'ira, Voci alte e fioche, e suon di man coi Facevano un tumulto, il qual s'aggira Sempre in queH'aria senza tempo tin Come la rena quando il turbo spira.

Poscia ch'io ebbi il mio Dottore udito Nomar le donne antiche e i cavalieri Pieti, mi vinse, e fui quasi smarrito. Poi cominciai ; Poeta, volentieri Parlerei a que'duo, che insieme vanr E paion si al vento esser leggieri. Ed egli a me: Qaali colombe dal disio chiamate, Con Tali aperte e ferme, al dolce nido Volan, per Paer dal voler portate ; Gotali uscir della schiera ov'6 Dido, 85 A noi venendo per Paer maligno ; Si forte fu l'affettnoso grido.

Di quel ch'udire e che parlar vi piace Noi udiremo e parleremo a vni, 95 Mentre che '1 vento, come fa, si tace. Siede la terra, dove nata fui, Su la marina dove '1 Po discende Per aver pace co' seguaci sui.

Amor, ch J a cor gentil ratto s'apprende, Prese costui della bella persona, Che mi fu tolta, e il modo ancor m'offende. Amor, ch'a null'amato amar perdona, Mi prese del costui piacer si forte, Che, come vedi, ancor non m'abbandona. Caina attende chi vita ci spense. Queste parole da lor ci fur p6rte. Quando risposi, cominciai ; Oh lasso! Quanti dolci pensier, quanto disio Mend costoro al doloroso passo! Poi mi rivolsi a loro, e parla'io, E cominciai: Francesca, i tuoi martiri A lagrimar mi fanno tristo e pio.

Nessun maggior dolore, Che ricordarsi del tempo felice Nella miseria; e cid sa '1 tuo dottore. Ma s'a conoscer la prima radice Del nostro amor tu hai cotanto affetto, Fard come colui che piange e dice.

Noi leggevarao un giorno, per diletto, Di Lancillotto, come amor lo strinse: Soli eravamo e senza alcun sospetto. Per piii fiate gli occhi ci sospinse Quella lettura, e scolorocci '1 viso Ma solo un punto f u quel che ci vinse. Quando leggemmo il disiato riso Esser baciato da cotanto amante, Questi, che mai da me non fia diviso, La bocca mi bacio tatto t reman te: Galeotto f u il libro e chi lo scrisse: Quel giorno piu non vi leggemmo avante.

Digitized by VjOOQLC tre che Puno spirto que3to disse, altro piangeva si, che di pietade venni men, cosi com'io morisse ; ddi come corpo morto cade. Tu vaoi ch'io rinuovelli isperato dolor, che il cor mi preme, 5 id, pur pensando, pria ch'io ne fovelli. Piangevan elli ; e Anselmnccio mio Disse: Padre, assai ci fia men doglia, tu mangi di noi: Padre mio, che non m'aiuti?

Pisa, vituperio delle genti 1 bel paese Id dove il si suona ; 80 i che i vicini a te pnnir son lenti, ransi la Capraia e la Gorgona, foccian siepe ad Arno in su la foce, ch'egli annieghi in te ogni persona.

Oh6 per tornare alquanto a mia memori E per sonare un poco in questi versi, Phi si conceperA di tua vittoria. Io credo, per l'acume ch'io soffersi Del vivo raggio, ch'io sarei smarrito, Se gli occhi miei da lui fossero aversi.

E mi ricorda ch'io fui piii ardito Per questo a sostener tanto, ch'io giui L'aspetto mio col Valore infinito. Sustanzia et accidente, e lor costume, Tutti conflati insieme per tal modo, Che cid ch'io dico 6 un semplice lume.

Cosi la mente mia tutta sospesa Mirava fissa, immobile ed attenta, E sempre di mirar faceasi accesa. Non perchd piu che un semplice sembiante Fosse nel vivo lume ch'io mirava, Ch6 tal e sempre qual s'era davante ; Ma per la vista, che s'avvalorava In me, guardando, una sola parvenza, Mutandom'io, a me si travagliava. E l'un dall'altro, come Iri da Iri, Parea reflesso; e Y terzo parea foco Che quinci e quindi egualmente si spiri.

Yeder volevacome si convenne L'imago al cerchio, e come vi s'indova ; Ma non eran da cid le proprie penne; Se non che la mia mente fu percossa Da nn fulgore, in che sua voglia venne. Silvio Pellico of Saluzzo, in Piedm the most popular and sympathetic writ literature in this century. Previous to his arrest at Milan in plice in a conspiracy against the Austria!

He died in a villa urin in , at the age of sixty-six. It was three P. The verb agrees with ore under- stood: A long examination was made: I will say nothing: To pout at her, to treat her coldly, to be cross. Note 2, and Note 5. This man 25 ; in.

They required me to deliver up caused to be delivered up by me: Cause to be brought 67; 9, Note. I'do not drink of it 4, Note 2. On this side; 36, " Stetti; see Stare: Thegoing and comi " Parecchi; 18; 4. D'ogni fa every sort. E per lo piii: For the mc " Fra: After the space of: Can he — af- fliggersi — be afflicted: If he is buried: Will be as if I had expired: Ricor- sero from ricorere: A re- publican in politics, he was imprisoned by the Austrian government for eight mouths, on suspicion that he was a participator in the liberal movements of Risposi ; see rispondere: Fatto; see 40; B.

Suo here represents Vossignoria: As to expose myself; 25 ; i. T article often supplies the place of 1 ive pronoun: Consolatiss " Vidi; see vedere: Not 17 2-Ne lo ringrazio: I thank him for ; " 9-Stetti ; see stare: Where are we going? Jntil while we are not. Ll di lil di: On the other side of.

Monti, a distinguished poet, author f Aristodemo, a tragedy, which "takes the ead among the most admirable specimens of he Italian drama" , died in Pietro Borsieri, son of a judge of the 3ourt of Appeals at Milan, was the author of everal literary works.

Luigi Porro, one of the most prominent nen in Milan, was noted for the zeal and lib- Tali ty with which he cultivated the arts and iterature. We are going further on in ;hat direction. The office created and held by seventy-three Doges in was originally for life, and conferred absolute power, but it was gradually ed and finally disappeared in , 1 fall of the Venetian republic. You are your lordship is: And he hurrie 50; l.

It reveals its author as a devot- baly — a man of high moral and Christian ;o cappuccinesco: The Franciscan meudicants was founded by St. I Assisi in The h Matthew, so widely known as t! So ; see sapere: Fhi " 4-Sanno ; see sapere: A course of action a do " Star sempre al di sotto: To be alwi jection underneath. Ingozzarne patiently to swallow an affront, implied in the proceeding clause. But afterwards he re- mained away from them with regret.

Li is often written gli when the follow- ing verb begins with a vowel. A con tan ti: From day to day. Se ne tirava addosso: He drew upon himself. To prevail, take off the point of the difficulty in an undertaking. Even he, an emphatic form like the predicate nominative: On account of his property, which was disappearing: A certain, such a one: Appear in the disl Un signor tale: A certain gentleman So and So. Close to the wall. Should happen to meet. Walking ; from an old ver bulare: With head erect, with a hi ty frown.

Looking surl " Ch'io t'insegno: Else I will teach you: According to the prag: I would show you. With the cloak, gown, i. Was falling upon him. As if beside himself as one out of his wits. Fled discomfited in a bad plight: Even they, beaten and wounded, emphatic use of the pronoun like the predi- cate nominative. There being no longer any one to fight: Glielo ; 25; I.

He was pro- voked to it. For him in his behalf. By him, by his hand. Lint and bandages ; 18; 6. Causing hi brought delivered into. I settle a dowry upon her. He took the habit. T present a clear and concise statement of the ; characteristics of Italian versification. A line may have as many accents a words, but the rhythmic accent alone make verse. A rhythmic accent is found even in tl est verses: Next to the endecasillabi ver- i syllables , these verses are considered the aious and are most frequently used.

They 70 rhythmic accents of which one may r of the first four syllables, and the other When two or more of the first four Digitized by VjOOQLC syllables are accented, as in the first stai ode — then the second or the fourth, as th may require, should take the rhythmic acce erence to the others, being the most music: An accented syllable and two short syllabi 2.

An accented syllable and four short syllab In the latter a caesural panse or rest repos i stitnted for one of the short syllables ; and in t rest for one, or a double rest for two short sylli In this system the syllables that precede th- are not considered as belonging to any series, i cents are sometimes given to the settenario, as fi Ei ni I sic c6me im mobile, Dato il mor tal so spiro, Stette la— spoglia im memore Orba di tanto spiro. Co si per c6ssa, at t6nita La terra al nunzio sta; 28 3-Ei fu!

Having given its mortal breath breathed ast. Senseless body, i fatale: Man of destiny, sa: Nor does she know, la: By the sudden melting away o great a light, izanare: The Manzanares, a river in cen- Spain. With what certainty the iderbolt followed the flash of lightning, tai: Poetical form for noi. In some editions the reading is serve. The flash, swift movemen maniples, companies of soldiers. Because a prouder spirit neve before the Cross of Calvary.

An allusion to the which he held in his hands on his dyii III. Vincenzo Gioberti, a philosopher, priest and man, the prophet of the uprising of Italy, w at Turin in He studied theology and dained to the priesthood in As a profi theology at Turin, he was very liberal in hi and opposed the Jesuits. He early labored foi tellectual and political regeneration of his Exiled in , he passed a part of his life i and Brussels and there wrote the greater par works. Giacomo Leopardi, one of the most remarkable lyr- ic poets of this century, was born at Recanati, near Ancona, June 29, , and died at Naples, June 14, At the age of sixteen he was widely celebrated for his remarkable attainments in learning.

He was familiar with the classic literature, with the later Greek and Latin writers, with Hebrew, English, French, Italian and Spanish, and at the same time his reason and imagination were characterized by wonderful power and individuality. His physical strength, however, was not proportionate to his gen- ius, and his later years were marked by sorrow and melancholy.

His Pensieri and other prose works would be more admired, were it not for the disheartening doubt that characterizes them. His character and genius may be compared with those of Pascal, though his philosoph- ical and religious convictions were widely different. The most complete edition of his works was published by Le Monnier, Florence, — With dishevelled hair, like the "ablative absolute" in Latin.

For thou hast good rea- son. Lightnings in the mist. Not dare to fix. By enemies of others. Pietro Metastasio originally Trepassi , was born at Rome in Though poor, his parents gave him some education, and at the age of ten he showed an admirable talent for improvising verses.

Gravina, an eminent jurist and scholar, impressed by his talents, became his protector and took charge of his educa- tion, changing his name and preparing him for the profession of law.

Metastasio justified the hopes of his benefactor by the success of his labors, especially in the melodrama to which he devoted his most perse- vering efforts. In he went to Vienna, where he succeeded and soon surpassed Zeno as imperial laure- ate and enjoyed the esteem and friendship of the em- peror Charles vi. He was beloved for his amiable character as much as for his genius.

His principal merits as a poet are facility and har- mony of versification, beauty of thought and noble- ness of expression. Schlegel remarks, "A perfect pu- rity of diction, a grave and unalloyed delicacy have rendered Metastasio, in the eyes of his countrymen, a classic author, the Racine of Italy. In the softness, tenderness, chasteness and gentle pathos of his verse he is not surpassed by any other poet of the musical drama; and although deficient in the genius of im- passioned tragedy, he is unrivalled in his operatic plays.

Page, Line 36 6-Pu I blio, tu qui? The following rules for the endecasillabo are given by Prof. This verse has either two or three rhythmic ac- cents. If two they are invariably on the sixth and tenth syllables — Ex: The living, ar d'ogni altro: Like every other person. He only must regard. As far as it is allowed. Let him go and become. Pertained only to fathers. Yet, up to this time, Rome boasts not a son who has reached succeeded in procur- ing the torture death of his father.

Do you regard me as a stranger, or as your father? Bethulia, a place mentioned only in the Apocryphal book of Judith iv, 5 ; vn, 1, 3 , which appears to have been on the south of the plain of Esdraelon, not far from Do- tham Dothaim , and to have guarded one of the passes to Jerusalem, but the site is unde- termined.

See Apocrypha, Judith, 10— Carlo Goldoni, the most celebrated author of come- dy in Italy, sometimes called the Italian Moltere, was born at Venice iu , and died at Paris in His life was one of agitation and full of adventures.

At the age of eight he wrote a comic drama. He studied philosophy, medicine and law. At Pisa he practiced law for a time with brilliant success, but his natural tastes soon led him to devote his talents en- tirely to dramatic composition.

Not long after, he felt sufficiently master of his art and of the public, to ef- fect a radical reform in the Italian theatre. He sub- stituted, for fantastic and frivolous adventures, the de- lineation of human follies and vices. For plays that were barely sketched by the author and in a great measure improvised by the actors, he gave plays care- fully written out in full.

He also banished the tradi- tional masks and costumes by which the Harlequins and other chief actors were distinguished. He had already composed pieces, when he was invited to Paris in After writing there for the Digitized by VjOOQIC Italian theatre two years, he passed to the service of the court, as teacher of Italian to the daughter of the king.

Three years after he received a pension of francs a year. He wrote about comedies, a few of which, as the Bourru Menfaisant, were written in French, but his best plays were in the Venetian dialect. His Me- moiresy written at Paris ,were said by Gibbon to be more comical than his best comedies. His greatest merits were his theatrical skill, and the liveliness, pi- quancy and humor with which he depicted the man- ners of all classes of society. He was represented as simple and ignorant but witty ; cowardly yet faithful,a great gourmand yet ac- Digitized by VjOOQlC Page, Line tive, and easily induced through fear or inter- est to engage in all sorts of tricks and knave- ries.

From the Italian stage he was transferred to other countries and introduced into England by Rich, in the 18th century. The character is now confined to Christinas pantomimes and puppet shows. Hence the use of the word as applied to an ar- ticle of dress. Of a noble family with an ample fortune, his early opportunities were unim- proved and the culture of his mind neglected.

At twenty-seven he changed his course of life and devo- Digitized by VjOOQLC ted himself with passionate ardor to study and com- position. Ignorant of Italian, to which the French was then preferred by the Piedmontese nobility,know- ing neither Greek, nor Latin, nor history, he acquired them all by himself, and overcame by force of energy and perseverance all the obstacles which were opposed to his design.

It is said that he began the study of Greek after he was forty years old. He made a pro- found study of Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles, and succeeded so well in imitating them that by many he has been regarded as a rival of these great masters. His works display great energy of lauguage and intensity of passion. They also abound in noble sentiments which were well adapted to reform the na- tional literature, then so degenerate and destitute of manly vigor.

He also wrote essays, odes, satires and an interest- ing autobiography. He was liberal in politics and earnestly desired to improve the political and social condition of his country. Page,Line 48 4-tllectra, the daughter of Agamemnon and Cly- temnestra, after the murder of her father, took her brother Orestes aged ten years and sent him to the king of Phocis, who caused him to be educated with his own son Pylades.

The scene is laid in Argos, in the vestibule of the palace, where is seen the mausoleum of the king. Lungi ; Far off. Within the palace you will be able to remain, to await his return. Which are due to you. It might grieve me af -. Leave to me the care of it the vic- tim. I do not utter the my name falsely. I saw him i. Of noble ancestry, many of whom had held important offices in the state, he was appointed, at the age of twenty-nine, secretary of the Florentine republic. This position he held fourteen years, when the relations of Florence with the great powers of Europe were such as to demand the highest qualities of statesmanship.

He was employed in twenty-three foreign embassies and in various commissions to dependent cities. His dispatches, as models of diplomatic style, form a very instructive and entertaining collection of state papers. Thus he was one of those writers who are formed in the discharge of his official duties as much as by study and meditation. Digitized by VjOOQLC In his Storie fiorentine, we find the judgment and knowledge of a man, for whom the management of affairs and the experience of life, together with a thor- ough acquaintance with the great models of antiquity, have secured the qualities of an accomplished histori- an.

His most celebrated work, 77 principe, has been most bitterly assailed and, until recently, universally condemned. Among his contemporaries, however, it did not affect unfavorably his reputation, either as a moral man or as a republican. It is now considered as a "scientific account of the art of acquiring and preserving despotic power, and is a calm unvarnished and forcible exposition of the means by which tyranny may be established and sustained.

If it be a guide to princes desiring to become tyrants, it is also, as Mac- chiavelli himself remarked, a guide to the j eople who wish to destroy tyrants. It weakens despotism by ex- posing its most subtle secrets. He died in his native city June 22, He died in , 1 estate to his sons Oosimo an a great patron of letters anc with the title pater patriae He was the grandfather of surnamed the Magnificent.

Note 1 " 6-Muoio: Torquato Tasso was born in Sorrento, March 11, His father Bernardo, also a poet, destined him for the profession of law. But after writing Rinaldo, at the age of seventeen, he was permitted to devote his attention to poetry and philosophy.

Three years later he found a home at the court of Ferrara, where he obtained leisure and facilities for working tranquil- ly upon his great poem. But his peace was disturbed by a passion, the circumstances and consequences of which caused him a multitude of misfortunes. Twice he left the city and the court of its dukes and twice he returned. In the duke Alfonso caused him to be confined in the hospital of the insane, where he remained seven years.

Meanwhile envy, untouched by his unjust sufferings, pursued the unhappy author with numerous and bitter criticisms. All these experi- ences so affected his imagination and his health, that, after recovering his liberty, he was never able to es- cape that incurable sadness which rendered his life so unhappy even to the end. When about to receive the laurel crown at Rome, as a late compensation for his bitter trials, he was taken sick and, after a plenary indulgence from the Pope, died in the monastery of St.

Onofrio the 23d of April, Page, Line 56 1-Erminia, the heroine of this poem, a captive in Jerusalem, has put on the armor of Clorinda a female warrior from Persia, the heroine of the infidel army and started in the night for the Christian camp. Discovered and pursued by some of the crusaders, who are deceived by her armor, she flees to the forest.

See Notes page For tears only is she thirsty. The repose of unhappy mortals. Until as long as she did not hear. Ne, is ex- pletive, or may represent Alberghi. It may be either the favor of heaven, which saves and elevates watches propitiously over humble innocence. Lodovico Ariosto was born at Reggio, near Modena, Sept. He relinquished law for poetry.

Af- ter the death of his father, he devoted his energies to the support of his younger brothers and sisters, enter- ing the service of the cardinal Ippolito PEste in There, in the intervals of his busy life, he composed his great romantic poem, Orlando furioso, which was published in , and at once became universally popular.

The subject is the chivalrous adventures of the paladins of the age of Charlemagne. In he entered the service of Alfonso L, duke of Ferara, who became a liberal patron and appointed him governor of one of his states.

He died at Ferrara June 6, The celebrity of Orlando furioso considered bv some second only to the Divina Commedia has al- most caused the other writings of Ariosto to be forgot- ten.

He however excelled in satire and wrote come- dies which were represented with great success. No Italian poet has handled the language of poetry with more facility. His style is so natural, so varied and so rich, that, without ever manifesting itself, art there reaches perfection. Francesco Petrarca, the first of lyric poets, born in Arezzo of Florentine parents, July 20,, forms with Dante and Boccaccio the glorious triumvirate which ruled all the literature of the 13th and 14th centuries.

He first studied law at Montpellier and Bologna, but after the death of his parents he returned to Avignon and devoted himself to literature. Endowed with a versatile mind and wonderful energy, an ardent pat- riot as well as eminent writer, he embraced in his long career poetry, eloquence, philosophy and politics.

He wrote numerous works in Latin, both in prose and po- etry, and maintained with his friends and with the most important personages of his time a correspon- dence which is of great historical value. His solemn coronation as poet laureate at Borne in was the reward given to his Latin poem Africa.

His Italian poetry called 11 canzoniere, or Rime di Petrarca, con- sists of over sonnets, about fifty canzoni, and three short poems in terza rima. The canzoni are odes generally of more elevated character than the sonnets and of the same form as the similar poetry of the Troubadours.

Clara on the morning of April 6, To the Italian language and poetry, Petrarca gave the power of expressing the most delicate sentiments and the finest shades of thought. He rendered it har- monious, pure and permanent. He was the master of his age in matters of taste and eloquence, and even now there is scarcely a word that is obsolete to be found in all his writings. Probably no author was more highly honored and esteemed during his life than he, while his verses are still received with popu- lar favor, as is shown by the fact that more than editions of the Canzoniere have been published.

That of Le Monnier 1 vol. He died at Ar- qua, July 18, Page,Line 61 2-Sonetto, sonnet, "a poem of fourteen lines, two stanzas of four verses each and two of three each, the rhyme being adjusted according to a particular rule. On my passing from this life. The time will come. Dante Alighieri, the greatest poet of Italy, and one of the greatest in literature, was born at Florence, May 14, In the dissensions between the Guelphs, adherents of the Pope , and Ghibellines imperial- ists , he at first followed the party of the Guelphs, to which his family belonged, and among whom he became distinguished, both as a soldier and a magis- trate.

When his party was divided, by a local dispute, into Neri blacks, or radicals and Bianchi whites, or conservatives Dante, who belonged to the latter, maintained his authority, as chief of the Priori, by the energy of his resolution and the wisdom of his counsel. But, while absent at Home, as ambassador to the Pope Boniface viii. Separated from his wife, Gemma dei Do- nati, he wandered through France and Italy, "living upon the hard charity of some and the cold hospitality of others," till he found a home with Guido Novello da Polenta, in Ravenna, where after nineteen years of exile he died Sept.

In all his works as a poet, philosopher and states- man, Dante has left the stamp of a versatile and su- perior genius. In the Vita Nuova written before he relates his own experience, especially his love for Beatrice Portinari, and shows how grief for her loss first turned his thoughts upon his own conscious- ness and thence upward through philosophy to relig- ion.

By memory and imagination he transforms the woman of flesh and blood into a holy ideal, the sym- bol of wisdom, which she becomes in so many of his verses.

In his Latin treatise De Monarchia, also writ- ten before , he unfolds his views upon govern- ment, both of Italy and the world, giving supremacy to the Pope only in spiritual, to the emperor in tem- poral affairs. In the Convito he portrays his ideas of love and philosophy, and gives an epitome of the learn- ing of his age, philosophical, scientific and theological. Of the De vulgari eloquio only two of the four books are preserved.

It treats of the different dialects of Italy and strengthens the foundations of the Italian language and poetry. The Divina Commedia, was written during the years intervening between his ban- ishment and death. It is intensely real and describes an actual journey as a matter of fact.

In this great po- em Italy finds a part of her history, the finished form of her language, the manifestation of her genius and the prophecy of her destiny. Dante rebukes the an- cient divisions and invites the people to that union which is at last realized. The homogeneousness of his life and works, his loyalty to ideas give to Dante a unique place in literary history. Buskin lias not hesitated to say that "the central man of all the world, as representing in perfect balance the imagina- tive, moral and intellectual faculties, all at their high- est, is Dante.

In form, it was a vast pit, reaching from the surface of the earth to the cen- tre, divided into nine circles gradually diminishing in circumference. Each circle, under the guardianship of a demon emblematical of the vice therein punished, is appropriated to the punishment of a particular class of crimes.

The greater the crime the lower the circle, till at the bottom, or centre of the earth, is fixed the arch-traitor, Lucifer. The first Canto is introductory, forming a sort of key to the whole poem, and leaving thirty three can- tos to this subject as to each of the other two.

In the middle of our Dante's life's journey ; Ps. At the age of thirty-five, on Good Friday,A. The action of the poem continues ten days, end- ing on the first Sunday after Easter. The hill of Virtue. Bunyan's hill Difficulty, and the Delectable Mountains. The vale of Woe. Bunyan's val- ley of Humiliation, and valley of the Shadow of Death.

The Sun, then considered a planet. Panther, or Leopard, representing worldly pleasure, or envy — politically the gay fickle and factious Florence with the Bian- chi and Neri. Upward with those stars Aries. At first, alluding to the ancient belief that the world was created in the Spring. Lion, representing ambition, or the royal house of France personified in Philip the Fair, who, intriguing with the Pope Bon- iface viii. She- Wolf, representing avarice, or the Court of Rome, the venal church.

As one who acquires ea- gerly. Drove me back into the valley where there is no light of the Sun. Hoarse, alluding to the long con- tinued neglect of Virgil and classic studies before the time of Dante. Virgil is the type of worldly wisdom, or human reason, the teacher of morality. Guide, as the symbol of human science, or philosophy. Producer, mover, any person worthy of being believed and obeyed, hence authority.

Thou must take another path ; i. Satisfies her craving appetite: Weds herself Papal alliances. Umile, low ; i. I will lead thee: In such pain that; referring to the spirits in Hell. To whom, the blessed people. Beatrice, or Divine Wisdom, the on- ly guide to Heaven. See Ruskin's Modern Painters, in. Not one of the circles, but that border of the pit, called Limbo, where Dante sees the spirits of those, who, having lived in a state of indifference to good and evil, are placed with neutral angels, as unworthy of punishment or happiness.

Their woe is caused by the fact that they have no hope of death or change. The term Limbo is applied by Dante to the first outermost circle of the Inferno ; iv. Sem, for semo, siamo. Forever dark, "that gloom of everlasting night.

Francesca and her lover, what qualities in that! A thing woven as out of rainbows, on a ground of eternal black. A small flute- voice of infinite wail speaks there, into our very heart of hearts Infinite pity, yet also infinite rigor of law: Dante defines it as "a color mixed of purple and black, but the black predominates.

In early Italian u is often used for o, and vice versa. The mutual love, not yet manifested. In the early Italian e was often used instead of i as the termina- tion of the first person.

In the preceding Canto verses — two spir- its were seen frozen in one bole, — the. Dante inquires for the reason of this enmity, and the one relates the cruel manner in which he and his sons were starved to death by command of the other. Must be a seed, which may produce. He became master of that city by a series of treasons.

Small hole in the prison. Muda, mew,a cage for confining hawks while moult- ing ; hence any inclosure or place of con- finement. Several moons, July to March. San Giuliano, between Pisa and Lucca. Wolf, the Count, a Guelph. So furo, verse Countries were sometimes named from the affirmative adverb of the language.

Because if the Count had the fame. Youthful age made Uguccioue and Brigata innocent. According to tradition Pisa was founded by Pelops son of Tantalus, king of Thebes, though deriving its name from "the Olympic Pisa on the banks of the Alpheus. In the Purgatorio, Dante describes, according to the prevalent idea of his time, a state of being, wherein those, who have aspirations after a holier and happier life, submit themselves to a course of discipline, by which they are purified from sin and fitted for heaven.

This is represented allegorically by the toilsome ascent of a lofty mountain with seven circles, or ledges, grad- ually diminishing in circumference, till the summit is reached, where the Garden of Eden is situated, whence the ascent is made to the heavenly Paradise.

The Paradiso comprises ten heavens. Of these nine revolve about the earth as a centre, while the tenth is the motionless Empyrean, which encircles and contains all. T preme vision is described in the closing lines poem 67 — , of which a writer in Appletc clopaedia affirms, "the Deity of Milton is th- while nothing in all poetry approaches the ii tive grandeur of Dante's vision of God at the sion of the Paradiso.

In some editions the reading is d'infunte Lat. I John iv ; Etrch of the three di- visions of this poem ends with the word stette, "suggesting and symbolizing end- less aspiration.

The corresponding Latin word is given in italics, other and secondary derivations are inclosed in parentheses. The principal abbreviations used are — A. Middle or low Lat- in; O. Old High German; pi. Scholastic Latin ; unc. The different parts of speech are not indicated, except that the gender of the substantive is given. A, ad, at, to, by, for. A b basso, bassus, below. Abbattere, batuere, to beat down, ref.

Abbracciare, brachium , to embrace. Abbreviare, fbrevis , to abridge. Abit adore, habere , m. A bit a re, habitare, to inhabit. Accanto, ad-canthu8 y rim of a wheel , beside, by, near. Acciajo, acieSj aderium, m. AcciochG, ad, ecce hoc quid, in order that.

Accoglikrk, colligere, to welcome ; collect. AccomOdark, accommodare, to suit, adjnst ; ref. Accoppiarr, copulare, to join, couple. Accorukrk, currere, to run up, to crowd to, pursue. Accostumark, see costuma , to accustom. Acquetare, qules , to appease, pacify. Acquietare, quies , quiet are, to quiet.

Acquistarb, quae re re , to acquire. Acuto, acutus, acute, sharp. Addietro, ad-de retro, behind, back. A ddio, ad-Deum, good-by, farewell.

Additare, digitus , to point out. Addosso, do88um, upon one's back. Additcbre, ad-ducere, to bring, adduce. Adeguare, aequalis , to equalize, ref. Adorno, adornatu8 t adorned. Affacciarsi, faciem , ref. Affaticare, fatigare, to fatigue, weary. Affato, factum, quite, thoroughly. Affermarr, ftrmare, to affirm, maintain.

Affbtuoso, affectuo8us, affectionate, fond, kind. Affezionato, affectus , attached, fond. Affidare, fldere, to assure, give confidence, ref. Affiooere, figere, to fasten; ref. Affrenare, frenum, to curb, restrain. Affumicare, fumigate, to fumigate. Agoirare, gyrus , to surround ; ref. Aggiungere, jungere, to add, overtake, join.

Aggiunto, junctum, added, joined: Ajutare, adjutum , to help, succor. Albore, alborum, albus , m. Alcuno, aliquem unum y some, any. Alieno, alienum, alius , foreign. Allegrare, see allegro , to rejoice.

Alletare, allectare, allicere , to allure. Allontanare, longus , to remove. Allora, ad Mam horam, at that time, then. Almeno, minus , at least. Almo, animo , poet. Alquanto, aliquid quant tiro, somewhat.

Alterigia, altus , f. Altezza, altus , f. Altri, alterum, another, others. Altrimenti, altera mentey, otherwise. Alzare, altiare , altus, to raise, exalt; ref. Amaro, amarum, bitter, cruel. Ambkdui, ambo duo, both. Ameno, araare , amoenum, pleasing, agreeable. Ammalare, malum , to fall sick. Ammirarr, rairari, to admire. Ammogliarsi, mulier , ref. Anciie, see ancora , also. Ancidbre, incidere, to kill. Anco, see ancora , also, even. Ancora, ad hanc horam, yet, still.

Axdark, aditare, ad ire , to go. Anghkria, angere , f. Angosciato, angustus, angere , uneasy, distressed. Annegare, necare, to drown.

Annidare, nidus , to nest, settle; ref. Annoiato, nocere, noxia, from in odio , annoyed, wearied. Anno80, anno8U8, of many years, old, aged. Annunziare, annuntiare, to announce. Ansi a, angere , f.

Anzi, ante, before, rather. Apparenza, apparere , f. Apparire, apparere, to appear. Appoggiarsi, podium, step , ref. Apportatore, apportare , m. Approdare, prora , to land. Aprire, aperire, to open. Ardente, ardent em, ardent. Arduo, ardere , difficult. Arguto, argutum, keen, witty. Arma, Arms, Armi, arma, f. Arrestarb, ad-restare, to arrest ; ref. Arrivare, ad-ripare, to arrive. Articolare, articulare, to articulate, pronounce. Asciutto, siccus , dry.

Ascoltare, awcultarey aurls , to hear, listen. Ascondere, abscondere, to conceal. A8Pettark, aspectare, to wait for. Aspirare, adspirare, to aspire. Aspro, asperum, harsh, fierce. AssAi, ad-8ati8, enough, very. Assalire, adsalire, to attack, Assalte, id. Asset ato, sitis , thirsty. Video correlati taggati con "temp7". Ads by Traffic Junky. Je me branle tout le temps! Suis pire qun mec! Elle a tout le temps envie de jouir. Elle a 3 orgasmes!! Elle a grosse libido et se branle tout le temps pour calmer ses envies!!!

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Consolatiss " Vidi; see vedere: Not 17 2-Ne lo ringrazio: I thank him for ; " 9-Stetti ; see stare: Where are we going? Jntil while we are not. Ll di lil di: On the other side of. Monti, a distinguished poet, author f Aristodemo, a tragedy, which "takes the ead among the most admirable specimens of he Italian drama" , died in Pietro Borsieri, son of a judge of the 3ourt of Appeals at Milan, was the author of everal literary works.

Luigi Porro, one of the most prominent nen in Milan, was noted for the zeal and lib- Tali ty with which he cultivated the arts and iterature. We are going further on in ;hat direction. The office created and held by seventy-three Doges in was originally for life, and conferred absolute power, but it was gradually ed and finally disappeared in , 1 fall of the Venetian republic.

You are your lordship is: And he hurrie 50; l. It reveals its author as a devot- baly — a man of high moral and Christian ;o cappuccinesco: The Franciscan meudicants was founded by St. I Assisi in The h Matthew, so widely known as t!

So ; see sapere: Fhi " 4-Sanno ; see sapere: A course of action a do " Star sempre al di sotto: To be alwi jection underneath. Ingozzarne patiently to swallow an affront, implied in the proceeding clause. But afterwards he re- mained away from them with regret. Li is often written gli when the follow- ing verb begins with a vowel. A con tan ti: From day to day.

Se ne tirava addosso: He drew upon himself. To prevail, take off the point of the difficulty in an undertaking. Even he, an emphatic form like the predicate nominative: On account of his property, which was disappearing: A certain, such a one: Appear in the disl Un signor tale: A certain gentleman So and So. Close to the wall. Should happen to meet. Walking ; from an old ver bulare: With head erect, with a hi ty frown.

Looking surl " Ch'io t'insegno: Else I will teach you: According to the prag: I would show you. With the cloak, gown, i. Was falling upon him. As if beside himself as one out of his wits. Fled discomfited in a bad plight: Even they, beaten and wounded, emphatic use of the pronoun like the predi- cate nominative.

There being no longer any one to fight: Glielo ; 25; I. He was pro- voked to it. For him in his behalf. By him, by his hand. Lint and bandages ; 18; 6. Causing hi brought delivered into.

I settle a dowry upon her. He took the habit. T present a clear and concise statement of the ; characteristics of Italian versification. A line may have as many accents a words, but the rhythmic accent alone make verse. A rhythmic accent is found even in tl est verses: Next to the endecasillabi ver- i syllables , these verses are considered the aious and are most frequently used.

They 70 rhythmic accents of which one may r of the first four syllables, and the other When two or more of the first four Digitized by VjOOQLC syllables are accented, as in the first stai ode — then the second or the fourth, as th may require, should take the rhythmic acce erence to the others, being the most music: An accented syllable and two short syllabi 2. An accented syllable and four short syllab In the latter a caesural panse or rest repos i stitnted for one of the short syllables ; and in t rest for one, or a double rest for two short sylli In this system the syllables that precede th- are not considered as belonging to any series, i cents are sometimes given to the settenario, as fi Ei ni I sic c6me im mobile, Dato il mor tal so spiro, Stette la— spoglia im memore Orba di tanto spiro.

Co si per c6ssa, at t6nita La terra al nunzio sta; 28 3-Ei fu! Having given its mortal breath breathed ast. Senseless body, i fatale: Man of destiny, sa: Nor does she know, la: By the sudden melting away o great a light, izanare: The Manzanares, a river in cen- Spain. With what certainty the iderbolt followed the flash of lightning, tai: Poetical form for noi. In some editions the reading is serve. The flash, swift movemen maniples, companies of soldiers.

Because a prouder spirit neve before the Cross of Calvary. An allusion to the which he held in his hands on his dyii III. Vincenzo Gioberti, a philosopher, priest and man, the prophet of the uprising of Italy, w at Turin in He studied theology and dained to the priesthood in As a profi theology at Turin, he was very liberal in hi and opposed the Jesuits.

He early labored foi tellectual and political regeneration of his Exiled in , he passed a part of his life i and Brussels and there wrote the greater par works. Giacomo Leopardi, one of the most remarkable lyr- ic poets of this century, was born at Recanati, near Ancona, June 29, , and died at Naples, June 14, At the age of sixteen he was widely celebrated for his remarkable attainments in learning. He was familiar with the classic literature, with the later Greek and Latin writers, with Hebrew, English, French, Italian and Spanish, and at the same time his reason and imagination were characterized by wonderful power and individuality.

His physical strength, however, was not proportionate to his gen- ius, and his later years were marked by sorrow and melancholy.

His Pensieri and other prose works would be more admired, were it not for the disheartening doubt that characterizes them. His character and genius may be compared with those of Pascal, though his philosoph- ical and religious convictions were widely different.

The most complete edition of his works was published by Le Monnier, Florence, — With dishevelled hair, like the "ablative absolute" in Latin. For thou hast good rea- son. Lightnings in the mist. Not dare to fix. By enemies of others. Pietro Metastasio originally Trepassi , was born at Rome in Though poor, his parents gave him some education, and at the age of ten he showed an admirable talent for improvising verses.

Gravina, an eminent jurist and scholar, impressed by his talents, became his protector and took charge of his educa- tion, changing his name and preparing him for the profession of law. Metastasio justified the hopes of his benefactor by the success of his labors, especially in the melodrama to which he devoted his most perse- vering efforts. In he went to Vienna, where he succeeded and soon surpassed Zeno as imperial laure- ate and enjoyed the esteem and friendship of the em- peror Charles vi.

He was beloved for his amiable character as much as for his genius. His principal merits as a poet are facility and har- mony of versification, beauty of thought and noble- ness of expression. Schlegel remarks, "A perfect pu- rity of diction, a grave and unalloyed delicacy have rendered Metastasio, in the eyes of his countrymen, a classic author, the Racine of Italy.

In the softness, tenderness, chasteness and gentle pathos of his verse he is not surpassed by any other poet of the musical drama; and although deficient in the genius of im- passioned tragedy, he is unrivalled in his operatic plays.

Page, Line 36 6-Pu I blio, tu qui? The following rules for the endecasillabo are given by Prof. This verse has either two or three rhythmic ac- cents. If two they are invariably on the sixth and tenth syllables — Ex: The living, ar d'ogni altro: Like every other person. He only must regard. As far as it is allowed. Let him go and become. Pertained only to fathers. Yet, up to this time, Rome boasts not a son who has reached succeeded in procur- ing the torture death of his father.

Do you regard me as a stranger, or as your father? Bethulia, a place mentioned only in the Apocryphal book of Judith iv, 5 ; vn, 1, 3 , which appears to have been on the south of the plain of Esdraelon, not far from Do- tham Dothaim , and to have guarded one of the passes to Jerusalem, but the site is unde- termined.

See Apocrypha, Judith, 10— Carlo Goldoni, the most celebrated author of come- dy in Italy, sometimes called the Italian Moltere, was born at Venice iu , and died at Paris in His life was one of agitation and full of adventures.

At the age of eight he wrote a comic drama. He studied philosophy, medicine and law. At Pisa he practiced law for a time with brilliant success, but his natural tastes soon led him to devote his talents en- tirely to dramatic composition. Not long after, he felt sufficiently master of his art and of the public, to ef- fect a radical reform in the Italian theatre. He sub- stituted, for fantastic and frivolous adventures, the de- lineation of human follies and vices.

For plays that were barely sketched by the author and in a great measure improvised by the actors, he gave plays care- fully written out in full. He also banished the tradi- tional masks and costumes by which the Harlequins and other chief actors were distinguished. He had already composed pieces, when he was invited to Paris in After writing there for the Digitized by VjOOQIC Italian theatre two years, he passed to the service of the court, as teacher of Italian to the daughter of the king.

Three years after he received a pension of francs a year. He wrote about comedies, a few of which, as the Bourru Menfaisant, were written in French, but his best plays were in the Venetian dialect. His Me- moiresy written at Paris ,were said by Gibbon to be more comical than his best comedies. His greatest merits were his theatrical skill, and the liveliness, pi- quancy and humor with which he depicted the man- ners of all classes of society.

He was represented as simple and ignorant but witty ; cowardly yet faithful,a great gourmand yet ac- Digitized by VjOOQlC Page, Line tive, and easily induced through fear or inter- est to engage in all sorts of tricks and knave- ries. From the Italian stage he was transferred to other countries and introduced into England by Rich, in the 18th century. The character is now confined to Christinas pantomimes and puppet shows. Hence the use of the word as applied to an ar- ticle of dress.

Of a noble family with an ample fortune, his early opportunities were unim- proved and the culture of his mind neglected. At twenty-seven he changed his course of life and devo- Digitized by VjOOQLC ted himself with passionate ardor to study and com- position.

Ignorant of Italian, to which the French was then preferred by the Piedmontese nobility,know- ing neither Greek, nor Latin, nor history, he acquired them all by himself, and overcame by force of energy and perseverance all the obstacles which were opposed to his design.

It is said that he began the study of Greek after he was forty years old. He made a pro- found study of Euripides, Aeschylus and Sophocles, and succeeded so well in imitating them that by many he has been regarded as a rival of these great masters. His works display great energy of lauguage and intensity of passion. They also abound in noble sentiments which were well adapted to reform the na- tional literature, then so degenerate and destitute of manly vigor. He also wrote essays, odes, satires and an interest- ing autobiography.

He was liberal in politics and earnestly desired to improve the political and social condition of his country. Page,Line 48 4-tllectra, the daughter of Agamemnon and Cly- temnestra, after the murder of her father, took her brother Orestes aged ten years and sent him to the king of Phocis, who caused him to be educated with his own son Pylades.

The scene is laid in Argos, in the vestibule of the palace, where is seen the mausoleum of the king. Lungi ; Far off. Within the palace you will be able to remain, to await his return. Which are due to you. It might grieve me af -. Leave to me the care of it the vic- tim. I do not utter the my name falsely. I saw him i. Of noble ancestry, many of whom had held important offices in the state, he was appointed, at the age of twenty-nine, secretary of the Florentine republic.

This position he held fourteen years, when the relations of Florence with the great powers of Europe were such as to demand the highest qualities of statesmanship. He was employed in twenty-three foreign embassies and in various commissions to dependent cities. His dispatches, as models of diplomatic style, form a very instructive and entertaining collection of state papers.

Thus he was one of those writers who are formed in the discharge of his official duties as much as by study and meditation.

Digitized by VjOOQLC In his Storie fiorentine, we find the judgment and knowledge of a man, for whom the management of affairs and the experience of life, together with a thor- ough acquaintance with the great models of antiquity, have secured the qualities of an accomplished histori- an.

His most celebrated work, 77 principe, has been most bitterly assailed and, until recently, universally condemned. Among his contemporaries, however, it did not affect unfavorably his reputation, either as a moral man or as a republican. It is now considered as a "scientific account of the art of acquiring and preserving despotic power, and is a calm unvarnished and forcible exposition of the means by which tyranny may be established and sustained.

If it be a guide to princes desiring to become tyrants, it is also, as Mac- chiavelli himself remarked, a guide to the j eople who wish to destroy tyrants. It weakens despotism by ex- posing its most subtle secrets. He died in his native city June 22, He died in , 1 estate to his sons Oosimo an a great patron of letters anc with the title pater patriae He was the grandfather of surnamed the Magnificent.

Note 1 " 6-Muoio: Torquato Tasso was born in Sorrento, March 11, His father Bernardo, also a poet, destined him for the profession of law. But after writing Rinaldo, at the age of seventeen, he was permitted to devote his attention to poetry and philosophy.

Three years later he found a home at the court of Ferrara, where he obtained leisure and facilities for working tranquil- ly upon his great poem. But his peace was disturbed by a passion, the circumstances and consequences of which caused him a multitude of misfortunes.

Twice he left the city and the court of its dukes and twice he returned. In the duke Alfonso caused him to be confined in the hospital of the insane, where he remained seven years. Meanwhile envy, untouched by his unjust sufferings, pursued the unhappy author with numerous and bitter criticisms.

All these experi- ences so affected his imagination and his health, that, after recovering his liberty, he was never able to es- cape that incurable sadness which rendered his life so unhappy even to the end. When about to receive the laurel crown at Rome, as a late compensation for his bitter trials, he was taken sick and, after a plenary indulgence from the Pope, died in the monastery of St.

Onofrio the 23d of April, Page, Line 56 1-Erminia, the heroine of this poem, a captive in Jerusalem, has put on the armor of Clorinda a female warrior from Persia, the heroine of the infidel army and started in the night for the Christian camp. Discovered and pursued by some of the crusaders, who are deceived by her armor, she flees to the forest. See Notes page For tears only is she thirsty. The repose of unhappy mortals.

Until as long as she did not hear. Ne, is ex- pletive, or may represent Alberghi. It may be either the favor of heaven, which saves and elevates watches propitiously over humble innocence. Lodovico Ariosto was born at Reggio, near Modena, Sept. He relinquished law for poetry. Af- ter the death of his father, he devoted his energies to the support of his younger brothers and sisters, enter- ing the service of the cardinal Ippolito PEste in There, in the intervals of his busy life, he composed his great romantic poem, Orlando furioso, which was published in , and at once became universally popular.

The subject is the chivalrous adventures of the paladins of the age of Charlemagne. In he entered the service of Alfonso L, duke of Ferara, who became a liberal patron and appointed him governor of one of his states. He died at Ferrara June 6, The celebrity of Orlando furioso considered bv some second only to the Divina Commedia has al- most caused the other writings of Ariosto to be forgot- ten.

He however excelled in satire and wrote come- dies which were represented with great success. No Italian poet has handled the language of poetry with more facility. His style is so natural, so varied and so rich, that, without ever manifesting itself, art there reaches perfection.

Francesco Petrarca, the first of lyric poets, born in Arezzo of Florentine parents, July 20,, forms with Dante and Boccaccio the glorious triumvirate which ruled all the literature of the 13th and 14th centuries. He first studied law at Montpellier and Bologna, but after the death of his parents he returned to Avignon and devoted himself to literature. Endowed with a versatile mind and wonderful energy, an ardent pat- riot as well as eminent writer, he embraced in his long career poetry, eloquence, philosophy and politics.

He wrote numerous works in Latin, both in prose and po- etry, and maintained with his friends and with the most important personages of his time a correspon- dence which is of great historical value. His solemn coronation as poet laureate at Borne in was the reward given to his Latin poem Africa.

His Italian poetry called 11 canzoniere, or Rime di Petrarca, con- sists of over sonnets, about fifty canzoni, and three short poems in terza rima. The canzoni are odes generally of more elevated character than the sonnets and of the same form as the similar poetry of the Troubadours. Clara on the morning of April 6, To the Italian language and poetry, Petrarca gave the power of expressing the most delicate sentiments and the finest shades of thought.

He rendered it har- monious, pure and permanent. He was the master of his age in matters of taste and eloquence, and even now there is scarcely a word that is obsolete to be found in all his writings. Probably no author was more highly honored and esteemed during his life than he, while his verses are still received with popu- lar favor, as is shown by the fact that more than editions of the Canzoniere have been published.

That of Le Monnier 1 vol. He died at Ar- qua, July 18, Page,Line 61 2-Sonetto, sonnet, "a poem of fourteen lines, two stanzas of four verses each and two of three each, the rhyme being adjusted according to a particular rule.

On my passing from this life. The time will come. Dante Alighieri, the greatest poet of Italy, and one of the greatest in literature, was born at Florence, May 14, In the dissensions between the Guelphs, adherents of the Pope , and Ghibellines imperial- ists , he at first followed the party of the Guelphs, to which his family belonged, and among whom he became distinguished, both as a soldier and a magis- trate. When his party was divided, by a local dispute, into Neri blacks, or radicals and Bianchi whites, or conservatives Dante, who belonged to the latter, maintained his authority, as chief of the Priori, by the energy of his resolution and the wisdom of his counsel.

But, while absent at Home, as ambassador to the Pope Boniface viii. Separated from his wife, Gemma dei Do- nati, he wandered through France and Italy, "living upon the hard charity of some and the cold hospitality of others," till he found a home with Guido Novello da Polenta, in Ravenna, where after nineteen years of exile he died Sept. In all his works as a poet, philosopher and states- man, Dante has left the stamp of a versatile and su- perior genius. In the Vita Nuova written before he relates his own experience, especially his love for Beatrice Portinari, and shows how grief for her loss first turned his thoughts upon his own conscious- ness and thence upward through philosophy to relig- ion.

By memory and imagination he transforms the woman of flesh and blood into a holy ideal, the sym- bol of wisdom, which she becomes in so many of his verses. In his Latin treatise De Monarchia, also writ- ten before , he unfolds his views upon govern- ment, both of Italy and the world, giving supremacy to the Pope only in spiritual, to the emperor in tem- poral affairs.

In the Convito he portrays his ideas of love and philosophy, and gives an epitome of the learn- ing of his age, philosophical, scientific and theological. Of the De vulgari eloquio only two of the four books are preserved.

It treats of the different dialects of Italy and strengthens the foundations of the Italian language and poetry. The Divina Commedia, was written during the years intervening between his ban- ishment and death.

It is intensely real and describes an actual journey as a matter of fact. In this great po- em Italy finds a part of her history, the finished form of her language, the manifestation of her genius and the prophecy of her destiny. Dante rebukes the an- cient divisions and invites the people to that union which is at last realized.

The homogeneousness of his life and works, his loyalty to ideas give to Dante a unique place in literary history. Buskin lias not hesitated to say that "the central man of all the world, as representing in perfect balance the imagina- tive, moral and intellectual faculties, all at their high- est, is Dante. In form, it was a vast pit, reaching from the surface of the earth to the cen- tre, divided into nine circles gradually diminishing in circumference.

Each circle, under the guardianship of a demon emblematical of the vice therein punished, is appropriated to the punishment of a particular class of crimes. The greater the crime the lower the circle, till at the bottom, or centre of the earth, is fixed the arch-traitor, Lucifer.

The first Canto is introductory, forming a sort of key to the whole poem, and leaving thirty three can- tos to this subject as to each of the other two. In the middle of our Dante's life's journey ; Ps. At the age of thirty-five, on Good Friday,A. The action of the poem continues ten days, end- ing on the first Sunday after Easter. The hill of Virtue. Bunyan's hill Difficulty, and the Delectable Mountains.

The vale of Woe. Bunyan's val- ley of Humiliation, and valley of the Shadow of Death. The Sun, then considered a planet. Panther, or Leopard, representing worldly pleasure, or envy — politically the gay fickle and factious Florence with the Bian- chi and Neri. Upward with those stars Aries. At first, alluding to the ancient belief that the world was created in the Spring.

Lion, representing ambition, or the royal house of France personified in Philip the Fair, who, intriguing with the Pope Bon- iface viii. She- Wolf, representing avarice, or the Court of Rome, the venal church. As one who acquires ea- gerly. Drove me back into the valley where there is no light of the Sun. Hoarse, alluding to the long con- tinued neglect of Virgil and classic studies before the time of Dante.

Virgil is the type of worldly wisdom, or human reason, the teacher of morality. Guide, as the symbol of human science, or philosophy. Producer, mover, any person worthy of being believed and obeyed, hence authority.

Thou must take another path ; i. Satisfies her craving appetite: Weds herself Papal alliances. Umile, low ; i. I will lead thee: In such pain that; referring to the spirits in Hell. To whom, the blessed people. Beatrice, or Divine Wisdom, the on- ly guide to Heaven. See Ruskin's Modern Painters, in.

Not one of the circles, but that border of the pit, called Limbo, where Dante sees the spirits of those, who, having lived in a state of indifference to good and evil, are placed with neutral angels, as unworthy of punishment or happiness.

Their woe is caused by the fact that they have no hope of death or change. The term Limbo is applied by Dante to the first outermost circle of the Inferno ; iv. Sem, for semo, siamo. Forever dark, "that gloom of everlasting night. Francesca and her lover, what qualities in that! A thing woven as out of rainbows, on a ground of eternal black. A small flute- voice of infinite wail speaks there, into our very heart of hearts Infinite pity, yet also infinite rigor of law: Dante defines it as "a color mixed of purple and black, but the black predominates.

In early Italian u is often used for o, and vice versa. The mutual love, not yet manifested. In the early Italian e was often used instead of i as the termina- tion of the first person.

In the preceding Canto verses — two spir- its were seen frozen in one bole, — the. Dante inquires for the reason of this enmity, and the one relates the cruel manner in which he and his sons were starved to death by command of the other.

Must be a seed, which may produce. He became master of that city by a series of treasons. Small hole in the prison. Muda, mew,a cage for confining hawks while moult- ing ; hence any inclosure or place of con- finement. Several moons, July to March. San Giuliano, between Pisa and Lucca. Wolf, the Count, a Guelph. So furo, verse Countries were sometimes named from the affirmative adverb of the language.

Because if the Count had the fame. Youthful age made Uguccioue and Brigata innocent. According to tradition Pisa was founded by Pelops son of Tantalus, king of Thebes, though deriving its name from "the Olympic Pisa on the banks of the Alpheus. In the Purgatorio, Dante describes, according to the prevalent idea of his time, a state of being, wherein those, who have aspirations after a holier and happier life, submit themselves to a course of discipline, by which they are purified from sin and fitted for heaven.

This is represented allegorically by the toilsome ascent of a lofty mountain with seven circles, or ledges, grad- ually diminishing in circumference, till the summit is reached, where the Garden of Eden is situated, whence the ascent is made to the heavenly Paradise. The Paradiso comprises ten heavens. Of these nine revolve about the earth as a centre, while the tenth is the motionless Empyrean, which encircles and contains all.

T preme vision is described in the closing lines poem 67 — , of which a writer in Appletc clopaedia affirms, "the Deity of Milton is th- while nothing in all poetry approaches the ii tive grandeur of Dante's vision of God at the sion of the Paradiso. In some editions the reading is d'infunte Lat.

I John iv ; Etrch of the three di- visions of this poem ends with the word stette, "suggesting and symbolizing end- less aspiration. The corresponding Latin word is given in italics, other and secondary derivations are inclosed in parentheses.

The principal abbreviations used are — A. Middle or low Lat- in; O. Old High German; pi. Scholastic Latin ; unc. The different parts of speech are not indicated, except that the gender of the substantive is given. A, ad, at, to, by, for. A b basso, bassus, below. Abbattere, batuere, to beat down, ref. Abbracciare, brachium , to embrace. Abbreviare, fbrevis , to abridge. Abit adore, habere , m. A bit a re, habitare, to inhabit.

Accanto, ad-canthu8 y rim of a wheel , beside, by, near. Acciajo, acieSj aderium, m. AcciochG, ad, ecce hoc quid, in order that. Accoglikrk, colligere, to welcome ; collect. AccomOdark, accommodare, to suit, adjnst ; ref.

Accoppiarr, copulare, to join, couple. Accorukrk, currere, to run up, to crowd to, pursue. Accostumark, see costuma , to accustom. Acquetare, qules , to appease, pacify. Acquietare, quies , quiet are, to quiet. Acquistarb, quae re re , to acquire.

Acuto, acutus, acute, sharp. Addietro, ad-de retro, behind, back. A ddio, ad-Deum, good-by, farewell. Additare, digitus , to point out. Addosso, do88um, upon one's back. Additcbre, ad-ducere, to bring, adduce. Adeguare, aequalis , to equalize, ref. Adorno, adornatu8 t adorned. Affacciarsi, faciem , ref. Affaticare, fatigare, to fatigue, weary. Affato, factum, quite, thoroughly. Affermarr, ftrmare, to affirm, maintain. Affbtuoso, affectuo8us, affectionate, fond, kind. Affezionato, affectus , attached, fond.

Affidare, fldere, to assure, give confidence, ref. Affiooere, figere, to fasten; ref. Affrenare, frenum, to curb, restrain. Affumicare, fumigate, to fumigate. Agoirare, gyrus , to surround ; ref. Aggiungere, jungere, to add, overtake, join. Aggiunto, junctum, added, joined: Ajutare, adjutum , to help, succor. Albore, alborum, albus , m.

Alcuno, aliquem unum y some, any. Alieno, alienum, alius , foreign. Allegrare, see allegro , to rejoice. Alletare, allectare, allicere , to allure. Allontanare, longus , to remove. Allora, ad Mam horam, at that time, then. Almeno, minus , at least. Almo, animo , poet. Alquanto, aliquid quant tiro, somewhat. Alterigia, altus , f. Altezza, altus , f. Altri, alterum, another, others. Altrimenti, altera mentey, otherwise. Alzare, altiare , altus, to raise, exalt; ref.

Amaro, amarum, bitter, cruel. Ambkdui, ambo duo, both. Ameno, araare , amoenum, pleasing, agreeable. Ammalare, malum , to fall sick. Ammirarr, rairari, to admire. Ammogliarsi, mulier , ref. Anciie, see ancora , also. Ancidbre, incidere, to kill. Anco, see ancora , also, even. Ancora, ad hanc horam, yet, still. Axdark, aditare, ad ire , to go.

Anghkria, angere , f. Angosciato, angustus, angere , uneasy, distressed. Annegare, necare, to drown. Annidare, nidus , to nest, settle; ref. Annoiato, nocere, noxia, from in odio , annoyed, wearied. Anno80, anno8U8, of many years, old, aged. Annunziare, annuntiare, to announce. Ansi a, angere , f. Anzi, ante, before, rather. Apparenza, apparere , f. Apparire, apparere, to appear. Appoggiarsi, podium, step , ref. Apportatore, apportare , m. Approdare, prora , to land.

Aprire, aperire, to open. Ardente, ardent em, ardent. Arduo, ardere , difficult. Arguto, argutum, keen, witty. Arma, Arms, Armi, arma, f. Arrestarb, ad-restare, to arrest ; ref. Arrivare, ad-ripare, to arrive.

Articolare, articulare, to articulate, pronounce. Asciutto, siccus , dry. Ascoltare, awcultarey aurls , to hear, listen. Ascondere, abscondere, to conceal. A8Pettark, aspectare, to wait for.

Aspirare, adspirare, to aspire. Aspro, asperum, harsh, fierce. AssAi, ad-8ati8, enough, very. Assalire, adsalire, to attack, Assalte, id. Asset ato, sitis , thirsty. Assistenza, assistere , f. Assomigliare, assimilare, to assimilate, resemble. Atterrarr, terra , to overthrow. Attestare, testari, to attest. Attitudine, aptitudinem, aptitude, skill. Attribuire, attribuere, to attribute. Attristare, tristis , to grieve; ref.

Attuario, actuarium, agere , m. Augello, avicella, avis , m. Augurb, Auguro, augurem, m. Aumentatore, augraen , m. Aurro, aureus, golden, gilded. Avante, Avanti, ab-ante, before. Avere, habere, to have. A verso, aversus, averted. Avvalobare, valere , to strengthen. A v venire, advenire, to arrive, happen ; m. Avventare, ventus , to dart; ref. Avventuroso, advenire , m. Awbzzare, adsuescere, to accustom. Avviare, ad-viare, to begin, start.

Avvicinare, ad-vicinari, to approach. Bacjare, basiare, to kiss, salute. Baonarb, balneare, to moisten, wet; to bathe. Balia, bajulus , f.

Barb a, barbam, f. Barbaro, barbarous, barbarous, cruel ; m. Basso, bassus, low ; basso rilievo, m. Batterk, batuere, to beat. Barbaro, barbarus, barbarous, cruel ; m. Beato, beatus, blessed, happy, fortunate. Bellezza, bellus , f. Bexeficare, benefacere, to benefit. Beniqno, benignu8 y benign, affable, obliging. Benivolenza, Benivoglienza, see Benevolenza.

Bikco, obliquus, squinting, grim, glaring, malevolent, bitter. Biriio, birrw, sergeant, sheriff. Brama, see bramare, f. Bramark, per-amare, to wish, desire. Brancolare, brachium , to grope. Bravaccio, see bravo, m. Bravo, brabeum, prize , m. Breve, brevis, short, small.

Brillante, berylus , brilliant. Calcio, calx, calcem, m. Calpkstarb, calx, pistare, to trample upon. Cambiark, cambire , to turn. Camkrikrk, camera , in. Cammixark, see cammino, to travel. Campark, see campo, to escape. Candto, canus, white , hoary, gray-headed.

Canzonk, see canto, f. Capello, caput , m. Capire, capere, to comprehend, understand. Capitark, caput , to arrive at, conclude, end. Carco, caricare, carrus, loaded; m. Carne, caro, carnem, f. Cascare, casare, to fall,to lose courage. Catenaccio, catena , m. Cattivo, captivus, wicked, wretched. Cavaliere, see cavallo, m. Cercare, circare, to search, inquire after, seek. Certo, certu8, certain, certainly. Chi a ho, clarus, clear. Chiavare, clavare, to nail, lock. Chiedere, quaerere, to ask, demand, inquire.

Chin are, dinar e, to bend, bow, stoop. Chiudere, clattdere, to enclose. Ci, ecce hie, us; to us, ourselves; adv.

Ciascuno, quemque unum, each, every one. Cignere, cingere, to gird. Cid, ecce-hoc, this, that. Circonspetto, circumspectus, circumspect, considerate. Cirra, cittade, civitatem, f. Cocchiere, concha, shell, little boat, coach , m. Codardo, cauda , cowardly. CoLa, eccuHllac, there, yonder. Colei, eccu'illa , she, that woman. Coloko, eccu'ille , they, those. Colui, eccu'ille , he, that. Comando, commendare , ra. Combattbre, batuere , to fight, combat, dispute.

Comb, quomodo, so, as, how. Cominciare, cum-initiare, to begin, commence. Commettkrk, committere, to commit. Commuovkrk, commovere, to move. Comparirb, comparere, to appear. Com passion k, compassionem, f. Compiacknza, complacere , f.

Compi acerb, complacere, to please ; ref. Comporre, componere, to compose. Comprare, comparare, to buy. Compugnere, compungere, to pierce, vex, afflict. Comune, communis, common, m. Condannarr, condemnare, to condemn. Condurrk, conducere, to conduct, lead. Confbrirb, conferre, to confer. Conflate, conflatus, interfused, Joined.

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Alterigia, altusf. Estratti dall 3 Inferno, C. N'ebbe in risposta, che bisognava guardarsi dalle risoluzioni precipitate ; ma che, se persisteva, non sarebbe rifiutato. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. Both works were simple chronicles rather than critical history.

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